The Salvia divinorum Research and
Information Center

Now available in over 50 languages


Salvia divinorum is an extraordinary herb used in shamanism, divination, healing, meditation, and the exploration of consciousness.
It should always be used in a thoughtful, intelligent manner, and only by responsible adults that are of sound mind and clear intent.

"The purpose of these sacraments is to purify, and to open the road. When it opens,
it's as clear as the blue sky, and the stars at night are as bright as suns."
—Aurelia Aurora Catarino (Mazatec shaman)

(This site is created and maintained by Daniel Siebert)

Image Gallery
(click on an image for a closer look)
Salvia seeds (thumbnail) - 4828 Bytes
Seeds
Salvia seedling (thumbnail) - 6061 Bytes
Seedling
Salvia leaves (thumbnail) - 4618 Bytes
Leaves
Chemical structure of salvinorin A (thumbnail) - 19933 Bytes
Salvinorin A
Salvia inflorecence (thumbnail) - 5113 Bytes
Inflorescence
Salvia flower (thumbnail) - 3084 Bytes
Corolla
Chemical structure of salvinorin A (thumbnail) - 2787 Bytes
Salvinorin A
greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes greensalvialeaf2.gif - 1643 Bytes

Sage Wisdom Botanicals. The premiere source for Salvia divinorum, kratom, kava, and other remarkable herbs.
Offering the finest quality leaves, extracts, live plants, books, and more. (Sales help support this site.)
Daniel Siebert's calendar of upcoming Salvia divinorum related public speaking engagements.
The Salvia divinorum FAQ. Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Salvia divinorum.
The Salvia divinorum User's Guide. A basic educational manual. Essential reading for anyone new to Salvia divinorum.
The User's Guide in PDF format. [previous version] You'll need the Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this file.
Das Salvia divinorum Benutzerhandbuch. (The User's Guide in German [previous version]).
Le Guide d'utilisation de la Salvia divinorum. (The User's Guide in French [previous version]).
La Guia de Usuarios de Salvia divinorum. (The User's Guide in Spanish [previous version]).
La Guida all’uso della Salvia divinorum. (The User's Guide in Italian [previous version]).
O Guia do Usuário de Salvia divinorum. (The User's Guide in Portuguese [previous version]).
Dansk Salvia divinorum Brugerguide. (The User's Guide in Danish [previous version]).
Ïäçãßåò ÷ñÞóçò ôçò Salvia divinorum. (The User's Guide in Greek [previous version]).
How to obtain effects from smoked Salvia divinorum. Important advice on smoking techniques.
The Legal Status of Salvia divinorum. An international listing of laws, regulations, and proposed legislation.
The Salvia divinorum Observer. A newsletter that provides information about Salvia divinorum-related news and events.
How to propagate and grow Salvia divinorum. Horticultural advice.
Extended gallery of Salvia divinorum photos. A growing collection of plant portraits and related images.
Experiential reports. Some exceptional firsthand accounts of Salvia divinorum experiences.
The Salvia divinorum chapter of "Pharmako/poeia" by Dale Pendell. (Also available in an Italian translation).
The Leaves of the Shepherdess by Kathleen Harrison. A healing salvia experience amongst the Mazatecs.
Roads Where There Have Long Been Trails by Kathleen Harrison. An ethnobotanist's journey through the Sierra Mazateca.
Lessons in The Use of Mazatec Psychoactive Plants by Bret Blosser. An anthropologist receives lessons from a Mazatec shaman.
The Living Truth by William Arden Ruth. Salvia divinorum and the right to pursue personal insight and spiritual growth.
On consulting Salvia divinorum as an "oracle." (Also available in an Italian translation)
Incorporating sounds and music into Salvia divinorum experiences. by Michael Evenmo.
Salvia divinorum breakthrough suggestions. by Michael Evenmo.
Salvia divinorum inspired arts. A collection of visual arts, poetry, and audio arts.
The virtual Salvia divinorum altar. Ceremonial objects and offerings dedicated to the spirit of Salvia divinorum.
Salvia is Not an Escapist Drug. Quite the Contrary; It is a Philosopher’s Tool. (Daniel Siebert interviewed by Joerg Auf dem Hoevel).
English language version of an article published in Hanfblatt [117: 46–49 (2009)]. For the original German text, go here.
The "Salvia divinorum" segment of Sacred Weeds. A television documentary that first aired on August 10th, 1998.
Daniel Siebert was a production consultant and experimental subject in this documentary.
This video is approximately 1 hour in duration. It was produced by TVF productions for U.K. Channel 4.
Daniel Siebert interviewed by Lorenzo Hagerty. Psychedelic Salon (podcast 081--"Salvia divinorum").
This podcast is approximately 1 hour in duration (originally podcast February 28, 2007).
(Note: This interview was conducted via telephone and the sound quality is not great.)
Daniel Siebert interviewed by "Max Freakout." Psychonautica (podcast 04--"Salvia divinorum").
This podcast is approximately 1 hour in duration (originally podcast April 6, 2007).
(Note: This interview was conducted via telephone and the sound quality is not great.)
Salvia divinorum from A–Z with Daniel Siebert, Part 1. The Entheogenic Evolution (Daniel Siebert interviewed by Martin Ball).
This podcast is approximately 1 hour in duration (originally podcast November 20, 2008).
(Note: This interview was conducted over Skype, so the sound quality is not great.)
Salvia divinorum from A–Z with Daniel Siebert, Part 2. The Entheogenic Evolution (Daniel Siebert interviewed by Martin Ball).
This podcast is approximately 1.5 hours in duration (originally podcast December 4, 2008).
(Note: This interview was conducted over Skype, so the sound quality is not great.)
The Facts About Salvia divinorum: An Interview with Daniel Siebert. Gnostic Media Podcast #43 (Daniel Siebert interviewed by Jan Irvin).
This podcast is approximately 2 hours in duration (originally podcast September 13, 2009).
Maps of Salvia divinorum's native region. The Mazatec region in the northeast corner of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico.
A beautiful Chime® rendering of salvinorin-A showing electron clouds. Use your mouse to manipulate the molecule!
To view this, you will first need the Chime® plug-in for your browser.
Scanning electron micrographs of a Salvia divinorum seed. Photos by Michael Dunlap.
Video of a hummingbird visiting Salvia divinorum flowers. Recorded by Carl P. McCall.
Photomicrographs of a Salvia divinorum leaf. 40x, 100x, 200x, 400x, 1000x. Nice trichomes!


Articles from Scientific Journals and Other Publications
        (Some of the following files are in PDF format. You'll need the Adobe Acrobat Reader to view them)
Salviaphoto ASR1
The Botany of Salvia divinorum (Labiatae)
by Reisfield AS. SIDA 15: 349-366 (1993).
This web-optimized version of Reisfield's paper includes lots of great photos.

Salvia divinorum and Salvinorin A: New Pharmacologic Findings.
by Daniel Siebert. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 43: 53–56 (1994). This paper is in PDF format.
Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum.
by Daniel Siebert. Annals of Botany 93(6): 763–771 (2004). This paper is in PDF format.
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Quantification of Salvinorin A from Tissues of Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M.
by Gruber JW, Siebert DJ, Der Marderosian AH, and Hock RS. Phytochemical Analysis 10(1):22–25 (1999).
Salvinorin A: A Potent Naturally Occurring Nonnitrogenous Kappa Opioid Selective Agonist.
by Roth BL, Baner K, Westkaemper R, Siebert D, Rice KC, Steinberg S, Ernsberger P, and Rothman RB.
PNAS. 99(18): 11934–11939 (2002). This document is in PDF format.
Supporting information: table 3, table 4, table 5.
Salvinorin A, an Active Component of the Hallucinogenic Sage Salvia divinorum, is a Highly Efficacious
Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist: Structural and Functional Considerations.
by Chavkin C, Sud S, Jin W, Stewart J, Zjawiony JK, Siebert DJ, Toth BA, Hufeisen SJ, and Roth BL.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 308(3): 1197–1203 (2004). This document is in PDF format.
Comparison of Pharmacological Activities of Three Distinct Kappa-Ligands (Salvinorin A, TRK-820 and 3FLB)
on opioid receptors in vitro and their antipruritic and antinociceptive activities in vivo.
by Wang Y, Tang K, Inan S, Siebert DJ, Holzgrabe U, Lee DYW, Huang P, Li JG, Cowan A, and Liu-Chen LY.
The Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics. 312(1): 220–230 (2005).
Effects of Salvinorin A on Locomotor Sensitization to D2/D3 Dopamine Agonist Quinpirolem.
by Beerepoot P, Lam V, Luu A, Tsoi B, Siebert DJ, Szechtman H.
Neuroscience Letters. 446(2–3): 101–104 (2008). This paper is in PDF format.
Antinociceptive and Hypothermic Effects of Salvinorin A are Abolished in a Novel Strain of KOR-1 KO Mice.
by Ansonoff MA, Zhang J, Czyzyk T, Rothman RB, Stewart J, Xu H, Zjwiony J, Siebert DJ, Yang F, Roth BL, Pintar JE.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 318(2): 641-648 (2006).
Daniel Siebert Speaks…
Interviewed by Will Beifuss. The Entheogen Review. Vol. 8 No. 3, Autumn 1999.
The History of the First Salvia divinorum Plants Cultivated Outside of Mexico.
by Daniel Siebert. The Entheogen Review. Vol. 12 No. 4, Winter 2003.
The Hallucinogenic Herb Salvia divinorum and Its Active Ingredient Salvinorin A Inhibit Enteric Cholinergic Transmission in the Guinea Pig Ileum.
by Capasso R, Borrelli F, Capasso F, Siebert DJ, Stewart DJ, Zjawiony JK, Izzo AA.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 18: 69–75 (2006).
The Hallucinogenic Herb Salvia divinorum and Its Active Ingredient Salvinorin A Reduce Inflammation-Induced Hypermotility in Mice.
by Capasso R, Borrelli F, Zjawiony J, Kutrzeba L, Aviello G, Sarnelli G, Capasso F, Izzo AA.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 20(2): 142-148 (2008).
Inhibitory Effect of Salvinorin A, from Salvia divinorum, on Ileitis-Induced Hypermotility:
Cross-Talk Between Kappa-Opioid and Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors.
by Capasso R, Borrelli F, Cascio MG, Aviello G, Huben K, Zjawiony JK, Marini P, Romano B, Di Marzo V, Capasso F, Izzo AA.
British Journal of Pharmacology. 155(5): 681–689 (2008)
Salvinorin A Inhibits Colonic Transit and Neurogenic Ion Transport in Mice by Activating Kappa-Opioid and Cannabinoid Receptors.
by Fichna J, Schicho R, Andrews CN, Bashashati M, Klompus M, McKay DM, Sharkey KA, Zjawiony JK, Janecka A, Storr MA.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 21(12): 1326–e128 (2009).
Selective Natural Kappa Opioid and Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists with a Potential Role in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction.
by Fichna J, Schicho R, Janecka A, Zjawiony JK, Storr M.
Drug News and Perspectives. 22(7): 383–392 (2009).
Salvinorin A Exerts Opposite Presynaptic Controls on Neurotransmitter Exocytosis from Mouse Brain Nerve Terminals.
by Grilli M, Neri E, Zappettini S, Massa F, Bisio A, Romussi G, Marchi M, Pittaluga A.
Neuropharmacology. 57(5–6): 523–530.
2-Methoxymethyl-Salvinorin B is a Potent Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist with Longer Lasting Action In Vivo than Salvinorin A.
by Wang Y, Chen Y, Xu W, Lee DY, Ma Z, Rawls SM, Cowan A, Liu-Chen LY.
The Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics. 324(3): 1073-1083.
Comparison of the Diuretic Effects of Chemically Diverse Kappa Opioid Agonists in Rats: Nalfurafine, U50,488H, and Salvinorin A
by Inan S, Lee DY, Liu-Chen LY, Cowan A.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 379(3): 263-270 (2009).
Salvinorin A: The ‘Magic Mint’ Hallucinogen Finds a Molecular Target in the Kappa Opioid Receptor.
by Sheffler DJ and Roth BL. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Vol.24 No.3 March 2003. This review article is in PDF format.
Salvinorin A: A Novel and Highly Selective Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist.
by Yan F and Roth BL. Life Sciences. Vol.75 No.22 (2004). This review article is in PDF format.
Salvinorin A: From Natural Product to Human Therapeutics.
by Vortherms TA and Roth BL. Molecular Interventions. Vol.6 No.5 (2006). This review article is in PDF format.
Differential Helical Orientations Among Related G Protein-Coupled Receptors Provide a Novel Mechanism for Selectivity:
Studies with Salvinorin A and the Kappa-Opioid Receptor.
by Vortherms TA, Mosier PD, Westkaemper RB, Roth BL.
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282(5): 3146–3156 (2007). This paper is in PDF format.
CoMFA Analyses of C-2 Position Salvinorin A Analogs at the Kappa-Opioid Receptor Provides Insights Into Epimer Selectivity.
by McGovern DL, Mosier PD, Roth BL, Westkaemper RB.
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modeling.
28(7): 612–625 (2010). This paper is in PDF format.
Acute Physiologic and Chronic Histologic Changes in Rats and Mice Exposed to the Unique Hallucinogen Salvinorin A.
by Mowry M, Mosher M, Briner W. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 35(3): 379–382 (2003). This paper is in PDF format.
The Plant-Derived Hallucinogen, Salvinorin A, Produces Kappa-Opioid Agonist-like Discriminative Effects in Rhesus Monkeys.
by Butelman E, Harris T, and Kreek MJ. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 172(2): 220–224 (2004). This paper is in PDF format.
The Discriminative Effects of the Kappa-Opioid Hallucinogen Salvinorin A in Nonhuman Primates: Dissociation from Classic Hallucinogen Effects.
by Butelman ER, Rus S, Prisinzano TE, Kreek MJ.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). ePublished ahead of print January 19, 2010. This paper is in PDF format.
Comparison of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Salvinorin A and its Derivatives to U69,593 and U50,488 in Rats.
by Baker LE, Panos JJ, Killinger BA, Peet MM, Bell LM, Haliw LA, Walker SL. Psychopharmacology (Berl).
203(2): 203–211 (2009). This paper is in PDF format.
The Hallucinogen Derived from Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin A, has ê-Opioid Agonist Discriminative Stimulus Effects in Rats.
by Willmore-Fordham CB, Krall DM, McCurdy CR, Kinder DH.
Neuropharmacology. 53(4): 481–486 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Discriminative Stimulus Effects of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane in Rhesus Monkeys.
by Li JX, Rice KC, France CP.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 324(2): 827–833 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Effects of Salvinorin A, a Kappa-Opioid Hallucinogen, on a Neuroendocrine Biomarker Assay
in Nonhuman Primates With High Kappa-Receptor Homology to Humans.
by Butelman ER, Mandau M, Tidgewell K, Prisinzano TE, Yuferov V, Kreek MJ.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
320(1): 300–306 (2007). This paper is in PDF format.
A New Species of Salvia from Mexico.
by Carl Epling and Carlos D. Játiva–M. Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard University (1962).
A New Mexican Psychotropic Drug From the Mint Family.
by R. Gordon Wasson. Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard University (1962).
Notes on the Present Status of Ololiuhqui and the Other Hallucinogens of Mexico.
by R. Gordon Wasson. Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard University (1963).
A Mazatec girl preparing Salvia divinorum leaves on a metate.
Photo taken in 1962 by R. Gordon Wasson.
In Search of the Magic Plant "Ska Maria Pastora" in the Mazatec Country.
by Albert Hofmann. From: LSD: My Problem Child (1979).
Salvinorin, A New trans-Neoclerodane Diterpene from Salvia divinorum (Labiatae).
by Ortega A, Blount JF, Manchand PS. Journal of the Chemical Society Perkins Transactions I (1982). This document is in PDF format.
Ethnopharmacology of Ska Maria Pastora (Salvia divinorum, Epling and Játiva-M.).
by L.J. Valdés J III, et al. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1983).
Etnofarmacologia di Ska Maria Pastora (Salvia divinorum, Epling and Játiva-M.) An Italian translation of the above.
Divinorin A, a Psychotropic Terpenoid, and Divinorin B from the Hallucinogenic Mexican Mint, Salvia divinorum.
by L.J. Valdés III, et al. Journal of Organic Chemistry (1984).
Loliolide from Salvia divinorum.
by L.J. Valdés III. Journal of Natural Products (1986).
Studies of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae), an Hallucinogenic Mint from the Sierra Mazateca in Oaxaca, Central Mexico.
by L.J. Valdés III, et al. Economic Botany (1987).
Salvia divinorum and the Unique Diterpene Hallucinogen, Salvinorin (Divinorin) A.
by L.J. Valdés III. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (1994).
"Divinorin C," a New Neoclerodane Diterpene from a Bioactive TLC Fraction of Salvia divinorum.
Lab notes from the desk of L. J. Valdés III. The Salvia divinorum Research and Information Center (2000).
Salvinorin C, a New Neoclerodane Diterpene from a Bioactive Fraction of the Hallucinogenic Mexican Mint Salvia divinorum.
by L.J. Valdés III, et al. Organic Letters (2001).
The Early History of Salvia divinorum.
by L. J. Valdés III. The Entheogen Review (2001) X(2): [73-75]
Some photos of Salvia divinorum from the Sierra Mazateca. by L.J. Valdés III
The Absolute Stereochemistry of Salvinorins. Also available in PDF format here.
by Koreeda, M., et al. Chemistry Letters (1990).
Kappa-Opioid Receptor-Mediated Effects of the Plant-Derived Hallucinogen, Salvinorin A, on Inverted Screen Performance in the Mouse.
by Fantegrossi WE, Kugle KM, Valdés LJ III, Koreeda M, Woods JH.
Behavioural pharmacology. 16(8): 627-633 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Salvinorins D-F, New Neoclerodane Diterpenoids from Salvia divinorum, and an Improved Method for the Isolation of Salvinorin A.
And supporting information. by Munro TA, Rizzacasa MA.
Journal of Natural Products. 66(5): 703-705 (2003). These two documents are in PDF format.
Divinatorins A-C, New Neoclerodane Diterpenoids from the Controlled Sage Salvia divinorum. And supporting information.
by Bigham AK, Munro TA, Rizzacasa MA, Robins-Browne RM.
Journal of Natural Products. 66(9): 1242-1244 (2003). These two documents are in PDF format.
Studies Toward the Pharmacophore of Salvinorin A, a Potent Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist.
And supporting information.by Munro T, Rizzacasa M, Roth BL, Toth B, Yan F
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 48(2): 345–348 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Autoxidation of Salvinorin A under Basic Conditions.
And supporting information.by Munro T, Goetchius G, Roth BL, Vortherms T, Rizzacasa M.
Journal of Organic Chemistry. 70(24): 10057-10061 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
8-epi-Salvinorin B: Crystal Structure and Affinity at the Kappa Opioid Receptor.
by Munro TA, Duncan KK, Staples RJ, Xu W, Liu-Chen LY, Béguin C, Carlezon WA Jr, Cohen BM.
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. [ePublished ahead of print 2007]. This document is in PDF format.
The Chemistry of Salvia divinorum.
by Thomas Munro. PhD dissertation. This is a large (283 pages - 6.32 MB) document, in PDF format.
Standard Protecting Groups Create Potent and Selective Kappa Opioids: Salvinorin B Alkoxymethyl Ethers
by Munro TA, Duncan KK, Xu W, Wang Y, Liu-Chen LY, Carlezon WA Jr, Cohen BM, Béguin C.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry. 16(3): 1279-1286 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Antidepressant Effects of the Herb Salvia divinorum: a Case Report.
by Karl R. Hanes, PhD. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (2001).
Salvia divinorum: Clinical and Research Potential.
by Hanes KR. MAPS Bulletin 13(1): 18–20 (2003). This paper is in PDF format.
Salvia divinorum and Salvinorin A: An Update on Pharmacology and Analytical Methodology.
by Grundmann O, Phipps SM, Zadezensky I, Butterweck V.
Planta Medica 73(10): 1039–1046 (2007). This paper is in PDF format.
Use of Nonprohibited Hallucinogenic Plants: Increasing Relevance for Public Health?
A case report and literature review on the consumption of Salvia divinorum (Diviner's Sage).
by Bücheler R, Gleiter CH, Schwoerer P, and Gaertner I.
Pharmacopsychiatry. 38(1): 1–5 (2005). This paper is in PDF format.
A Facile Method for the Preparation of Deuterium Labeled Salvinorin A: Synthesis of [2,2,2-2H3]-Salvinorin A
by Kevin Tidgewell, Wayne W. Harding, Mark Schmidt, Kenneth G. Holden, Daryl J. Murry, and Thomas E. Prisinzano.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 14(20): 5099-5102 (2004). This document is in PDF format.
Salvinicins A and B, New Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum.
by Harding WW, Tidgewell K, Schmidt M, Shah K, Dersch CM, Snyder J, Parrish D, Deschamps JR, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE.
Organic Letters. 7(14): 3017–3020 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Neoclerodane Diterpenes as a Novel Scaffold for Mu Opioid Receptor Ligands.
by Harding WW, Tidgewell K, Byrd N, Cobb H, Dersch CM, Butelman ER, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 48(15): 4765–4771 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
An Opioid Agonist That Does Not Induce Mu-Opioid Receptor–Arrestin Interactions or Receptor Internalization.
by Groer CE, Tidgewell K, Moyer RA, Harding WW, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE, Bohn LM.
Molecular Pharmacology. 71(2): 549–557 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Salvinorin A: Allosteric Interactions at the Mu-Opioid Receptor.
by Rothman RB, Murphy DL, Xu H, Godin JA, Dersch CM, Partilla JS, Tidgewell K, Schmidt M, Prisinzano TE.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 320(2): 801–810 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Determination of Salvinorin A in Body Fluids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization.
by Schmidt MS, Prisinzano TE, Tidgewell K, Harding W, Butelman ER, Kreek MJ, and Murry DJ.
Journal of Chromatography. B. 818(2): 221–225 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Pharmacokinetics of the Plant-Derived Kappa-Opioid Hallucinogen Salvinorin A in Nonhuman Primates.
by Schmidt MD, Schmidt MS, Butelman ER, Harding WW, Tidgewell K, Murry DJ, Kreek MJ, Prisinzano TE.
Synapse. 58(3): 208–210 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Psychopharmacology of the Hallucinogenic Sage Salvia divinorum.
by Prisinzano TE.
Life Sciences. 78(5): 527-531 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Semisynthesis of Salvinicins A and B
and Other Chemical Transformations of Salvinorin A.
by Harding WW, Schmidt M, Tidgewell K, Kannan P, Holden KG, Gilmour B, Navarro H, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE.
Journal of Natural Products. 69(1): 107–112 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Selective Modification of the Furan Ring.
by Harding WW, Schmidt M, Tidgewell K, Kannan P, Holden KG, Dersch CM, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 16(12): 3170–3174. This document is in PDF format.
Synthesis of Salvinorin A Analogues as Opioid Receptor Probes.
by Tidgewell K, Harding WW, Lozama A, Cobb H, Shah K, Kannan P, Dersch CM, Parrish D, Deschamps JR, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE.
Journal of Natural Products. 69(6): 914–918 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Preparation and Opioid Receptor Activity of Salvinicin Analogues.
by Simpson DS, Katavic PL, Lozama A, Harding WW, Parrish D, Deschamps JR, Dersch CM, Partilla JS, Rothman RB, Navarro H, Prisinzano TE.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 50(15): 3596-3603 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Exploration of the 1-Position.
by Holden KG, Tidgewell K, Marquam A, Rothman RB, Navarro H, Prisinzano TE.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 17(22): 6111–6115 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Role of the Furan in Affinity for Opioid Receptors.
by Simpson DS, Lovell KM, Lozama A, Han N, Day VW, Dersch CM, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. 7(18): 3748–3756 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
Salvinorin A Analogs as Probes in Opioid Pharmacology.
by Prisinzano TE, Rothman RB.
Chemical Reviews. 108(5): 1732–1743. (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Herkinorin Analogues With Differential â-Arrestin-2 Interactions.
by Tidgewell K, Groer CE, Harding WW, Lozama A, Schmidt M, Marquam A, Hiemstra J, Partilla JS, Dersch CM, Rothman RB, Bohn LM, Prisinzano TE.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 51(8): 2421–2431. (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Differential Effects of Opioid Agonists on G Protein Expression in CHO Cells Expressing Cloned Human Opioid Receptors.
by Xu H, Wang X, Partilla JS, Bishop-Mathis K, Benaderet TS, Dersch CM, Simpson DS, Prisinzano TE, Rothman RB.
Brain Research Bulletin. 77(1): 49–54. (2008). This document is in PDF format.
The Effects of Herkinorin, the First ì-Selective Ligand from a Salvinorin A-Derived Scaffold, in a Neuroendocrine Biomarker Assay in Non-Human Primates.
by Butelman ER, Rus S, Simpson DS, Wolf AK, Prisinzano TE, Kreek MJ.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 327(1): 154–160 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Unconditioned Behavioral Effects of the Powerful ê-Opioid Hallucinogen, Salvinorin A: Fast Onset and Entry Into Cerebrospinal Fluid.
by Butelman ER, Prisinzano TE, Deng H, Rus S, Kreek MJ.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 328(2): 588-597. This document is in PDF format.
Chemical Methods for the Synthesis and Modification of Neoclerodane Diterpenes.
by Lozama A, Prisinzano TE.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 19(18): 5490–5495 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
Neo-clerodane Diterpenes from the Hallucinogenic Sage Salvia divinorum.
And errata. by Shirota O, Nagamatsu K, Sekita S.
Journal of Natural Products. 69(12): 1782–1786. (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Simple Preparative Isolation of Salvinorin A from the Hallucinogenic Sage, Salvia divinorum, by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.
by Shirota O, Nagamatsu K, Sekita S.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. 30(8): 1105–1114. (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Asymmetric Synthesis of Salvinorin A, a Potent Kaapa Opioid Receptor Agonist.
by Scheerer JR, Lawrence JF, Wang GC, Evans DA.
Supporting information here (4 MB file).
Journal of the American Chemical Society. [ePublished ahead of print June 30, 2007]. This document is in PDF format.
Total Synthesis of the Hallucinogenic Neoclerodane Diterpenoid Salvinorin A.
by Nozawa M, Suka Y, Hoshi T, Suzuki T, Hagiwara H.
Organic Letters. 10(7): 1365-1368 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Total Synthesis of 20-Norsalvinorin A. 1. Preparation of a Key Intermediate.
by Bergman YE, Mulder R, Perlmutter P.
Journal of Organic Chemistry. 74(6): 2589-2591 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
Quantification of the Plant-Derived Hallucinogen Salvinorin A in Conventional and Non-Conventional Biological Fluids
by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after Salvia divinorum smoking.
by Pichini S, Abanades S, Farre M, Pellegrini M, Marchei E, Pacifici R, Torre RD, and Zuccaro P.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 19(12): 1649–1656 (2005). This paper is in PDF format.
Synthesis and In Vitro Pharmacological Evaluation of Salvinorin A Analogues Modified at C(2).
by Béguin C, Richards MR, Wang Y, Chen Y, Liu-Chen LY, Ma Z, Lee DY, Carlezon WA Jr, and Cohen BM.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 15(11): 2761–2765 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Synthesis and In Vitro Pharmacological Studies of New C(2) Modified Salvinorin A Analogues.
by Lee DY, Karnati VV, He M, Liu-Chen LY, Kondareti L, Ma Z, Wang Y, Chen Y, Béguin C, Carlezon WA Jr, Cohen B.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 15(16): 3744–3747 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Synthesis and In Vitro Pharmacological Studies of C(4) Modified Salvinorin A Analogues.
by Lee DY, He M, Kondaveti L, Liu-Chen LY, Ma Z, Wang Y, Chen Y, Li JG, Béguin C, Carlezon WA Jr, Cohen B.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. [ePublished ahead of print Jul 25, 2005]. This document is in PDF format.
New Neoclerodane Diterpenoids Isolated From the Leaves of Salvia divinorum and Their Binding Affinities for Human Kappa Opioid Receptors.
by Lee DY, Ma Z, Liu-Chen LY, Wang Y, Chen Y, Carlezon WA Jr, Cohen B.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. [ePublished ahead of print Aug 3, 2005]. This document is in PDF format.
Synthesis and In Vitro Pharmacological Studies of New C(4)-Modified Salvinorin A Analogues.
by Lee DY, He M, Liu-Chen LY, Wang Y, Li JG, Xu W, Ma Z, Carlezon WA Jr, Cohen B
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 16(21): 5498–5502 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Depressive-like Effects of the Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist Salvinorin A on Behavior and Neurochemistry in Rats.
by Carlezon Jr WA, Béguin C, Dinieri JA, Baumann MH, Richards MR, Todtenkopf MS, Rothman RB, Ma Z, Lee DY, Cohen BM.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 316(1): 440–447 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Depressive-like Effects of the Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist Salvinorin A are Associated with Decreased Phasic Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens.
by Ebner SR, Roitman MF, Potter DN, Rachlin AB, Chartoff EH.
Psychopharmacology. ePublished ahead of print April 7, 2010. This paper is in PDF format.
Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Salvinorin A Analogues: Effect of Configuration at C(2) and Substitution at C(18).
by Béguin C, Richards MR, Li JG, Wang Y, Xu W, Liu-Chen LY, Carlezon WA Jr, Cohen BM.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 16(17): 4679–4685 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Revised Structure of Deacetyl-1,10-didehydrosalvinorin G.
by Ma Z, Lee DYW.
Tetrahedron Letters. 48(31): 5461–5464 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Synthesis of Deacetyl-1,10-didehydrosalvinorin G.
by Ma Z, Lee DYW.
Tetrahedron Letters. 49(11): 1782–1785 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
N-Methylacetamide Analogue of Salvinorin A: A Highly Potent and Selective Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist with Oral Efficacy.
by Béguin C, Potter DN, Dinieri JA, Munro TA, Richards MR, Paine TA, Berry L, Zhao Z, Roth BL, Xu W, Liu-Chen LY, Carlezon Jr WA, Cohen BM.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 324(1): 188–195 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Modification of the Furan Ring of Salvinorin A: Identification of a Selective Partial Agonist at the Kappa Opioid Receptor.
by Béguin C, Duncan KK, Munro TA, Ho DM, Xu W, Liu-Chen LY, Carlezon WA Jr, Cohen BM.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry. 17(3): 1370–1380 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of C-12 Triazole and Oxadiazole Analogs of Salvinorin A.
by Yang L, Xu W, Chen F, Liu-Chen LY, Ma Z, Lee DY.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemestry Letters. 19(5): 1301–1304 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
Exposure to the Selective Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist Salvinorin A Modulates the Behavioral and Molecular Effects of Cocaine in Rats.
by Chartoff EH, Potter D, Damez-Werno D, Cohen BM, Carlezon WA Jr.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 33(11): 2676–2687 (2008). This paper is in PDF format.
Effect of Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonists U69593, U50488H, Spiradoline and Salvinorin A on Cocaine-Induced Drug-Seeking in Rats.
by Morani AS, Kivell B, Prisinzano TE, and Schenk S.
Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 94(2): 244–249 (2009). This paper is in PDF format.
Identification of the Molecular Mechanisms by Which the Diterpenoid Salvinorin A Binds to Kappa-Opioid Receptors.
by Yan F, Mosier PD, Westkaemper RB, Stewart J, Zjawiony JK, Vortherms TA, Sheffler DJ, Roth BL.
Biochemistry. 44(24): 8643–8651 (2005). This document is in PDF format.

Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization
of Novel Salvinorin A Analogues as Active State Probes of the ê-Opioid Receptor.
by Yan F, Bikbulatov RV, Mocanu V, Dicheva N, Parker CE, Wetsel WC, Mosier PD, Westkaemper RB, Allen JA, Zjawiony JK, Roth BL.
Biochemistry. 48(29): 6898-6908. This document is in PDF format.

Unambiguous NMR Spectral Assignments of Salvinorin A.
by Giner JL, Kiemle DJ, Kutrzeba L, Zjawiony J.
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry. 45(4): 351–354 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Biosynthesis of Salvinorin A Proceeds via The Deoxyxylulose Phosphate Pathway.
by Kutrzeba L, Dayan FE, Howell J, Feng J, Giner JL, Zjawiony JK.
Phytochemistry. 68(14): 1872–1881 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Salvinorins J from Salvia divinorum: Mutarotation in the Neoclerodane System.
by Kutrzeba LM, Ferreira D, Zjawiony JK.
Journal of Natural Products. 72(7): 1361-1363. This document is in PDF format.
Intramolecular Transacetylation in Salvinorins D and E.
by Kutrzeba LM, Li X-C, Ding Y, Ferreira D, Zjawiony JK.
Journal of Natural Products. ePublished ahead of print March 25, 2010. This document is in PDF format.
Convenient synthesis and in vitro pharmacological activity of 2-thioanalogs of salvinorins A and B.
by Bikbulatov RV, Yan F, Roth BL, Zjawiony JK.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 17(8): 2229–2232 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Short Synthesis of a Novel Class of Salvinorin A Analogs with Hemiacetalic Structure.
by Bikbulatov RV, Stewart J, Jin W, Yan F, Roth BL, Ferreira D, Zjawiony JK.
Tetrahedron Letters. 49: 937–940 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Studies Towards the Synthesis of Salvinorin A.
by Lingham AR, Hügel HM, Rook TJ.
Australian Journal of Chemistry. 59(5): 340–348 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Determination of Salvinorins and Divinatorins in Salvia divinorum Leaves by Liquid Chromatography/Multistage Mass Spectrometry.
by Medana C, Massolino C, Pazzi M, Baiocchi C.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 20(2): 131–136 (2005). This document is in PDF format.
Analysis of the Psychoactive Terpenoid Salvinorin A Content in Five Salvia divinorum Herbal Products.
by Wolowich WR, Perkins AM, Cienki JJ.
Pharmacotherapy. 26(9): 1268–1272(2006). This document is in PDF format.
Determination of Salvinorin A and Salvinorin B in Salvia divinorum-Related Products Circulated in Japan.
by Tsujikawa K, Kuwayama K, Miyaguchi H, Kanamori T, Iwata YT, Yoshida T, Inoue H.
Forensic Science International 180(2-3): 105-109 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
In Vitro Stability and Metabolism of Salvinorin A in Rat Plasma.
by Tsujikawa K, Kuwayama K, Miyaguchi H, Kanamori T, Iwata YT, Inoue H.
Xenobiotica 39(5): 391-398 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
Evaluation of the Transport, In Vitro Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of Salvinorin A, a Potent Hallucinogen.
by Teksin ZS, Lee IJ, Nemieboka NN, Othman AA, Upreti VV, Hassan HE, Syed SS, Prisinzano TE, Eddington ND.
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 72(2): 471–477 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
The Detection and Quantitative Analysis of the Psychoactive Component of Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin A,
in Human Biological Fluids Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
by McDonough PC, Holler JM, Vorce SP, Bosy TZ, Magluilo J Jr, Past MR.
Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 32(6): 417–421 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
The Antinociceptive Effect of Salvinorin A in Mice.
by Trentini, John F., Larry G. French, and Joseph S. Erlichman.
European Journal of Pharmacology. 545 (2–3): 129–133 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Antinociceptive Profile of Salvinorin A, a Structurally Unique Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist.
by McCurdy CR, Sufka KJ, Smith GH, Warnick JE, Nieto MJ.
Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. [ePublished ahead of print Jan 20, 2006]. This document is in PDF format.
A Unique Binding Epitope for Salvinorin A, a Non-Nitrogenous Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist.
by Kane BE, Nieto MJ, McCurdy CR, Ferguson DM.
FEBS Journal. 273(9): 1966–1974 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Toward a Structure-Based Model of Salvinorin A Recognition of the Kappa-Opioid Receptor.
by Kane BE, McCurdy CR, Ferguson DM.
Journal of Medicinal Chemestry. 51(6): 1824-1830. This document is in PDF format.
A Combined Ligand-Based and Target-Based Drug Design Approach for G-Protein Coupled Receptors:
Application to Salvinorin A, a Selective Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist.
by Singh N, Chevé G, Ferguson DM, McCurdy CR.
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 20(7–8): 471–493 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
Intramolecular Diels-Alder/Tsuji Allylation Assembly of the Functionalized Trans-Decalin of Salvinorin A.
by Burns AC, Forsyth CJ.
Organic Letters. 10(1): 97–100 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Dopamine D2High Receptors Stimulated by Phencyclidines, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, Salvinorin A, and Modafinil.
by Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H.
Synapse. 63(8): 698–704. (2009). This document is in PDF format.
PCR and PCR-RFLP of the 5S-rRNA-NTS Region and Salvinorin A Analyses for the Rapid and Unequivocal Determination of Salvia divinorum.
by Bertea CM, Luciano P, Bossi S, Leoni F, Baiocchi C, Medana C, Azzolin CM, Temporale G, Lombardozzi MA, Maffei ME.
Phytochemistry. 67(4): 371–378 (2006). This document is in PDF format.
DNA Internal Standard for the Quantitative Determination of Hallucinogenic Plants in Plant Mixtures.
by Luciano P, Bertea CM, Temporale G, Maffei ME.
Forensic Science International: Genetics. 1(3–4): 262–266 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Authentication and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)/MS Analysis of Magic Mint, Salvia divinorum and Its Related Plants.
by Maruyama T, Kamakura H, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Goda Y.
Yakugaku Zasshi. 128(1): 179–183 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Analytical data of Designated Substances (Shitei-Yakubutsu) Controlled by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan, Part I: GC-MS and LC-MS.
by Kikura-Hanajiri R, Kawamura M, Uchiyama N, Ogata J, Kamakura H, Saisho K, Goda Y.
Yakugaku Zasshi. 128(6): 971–979 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Simple and Rapid Screening for Psychotropic Natural Products Using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)-TOFMS.
by Kawamura M, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Goda Y.
Yakugaku Zasshi. 129(6): 719–725 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
Analyzing Salvia divinorum and its Active Ingredient Salvinorin A Utilizing Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.
by Jermain JD, Evans HK.
Journal of Forensic Sciences. 54(3): 612–616 (2009). This document is in PDF format.
Direct Analysis of Salvia divinorum Leaves for Salvinorin A by Thin Layer Chromatography
and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Multi-Stage Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
by Kennedy JH, Wiseman JM.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 24(9): 1305–1311 (2010). This document is in PDF format.
Hallucinatory and Rewarding Effect of Salvinorin A in Zebrafish: Kappa-Opioid and CB1-Cannabinoid Receptor Involvement.
by Braida D, Limonta V, Pegorini S, Zani A, Guerini-Rocco C, Gori E, Sala M.
Psychopharmacology. 190(4): 441–448 (2007). This document is in PDF format.
Involvement of Kappa-Opioid and Endocannabinoid System on Salvinorin A-Induced Reward.
by Braida D, Limonta V, Capurro V, Fadda P, Rubino T, Mascia P, Zani A, Gori E, Fratta W, Parolaro D, Sala M.
Biological Psychiatry. 63(3): 286–292 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Kappa Opioid Mediation of Cannabinoid Effects of the Potent Hallucinogen, Salvinorin A, in Rodents.
by Walentiny DM, Vann RE, Warner JA, King LS, Seltzman HH, Navarro HA, Twine CE Jr, Thomas BF, Gilliam AF, Gilmour BP, Carroll FI, Wiley JL.
Psychopharmacology. ePublished ahead of print March 31, 2010. This document is in PDF format.
Potential Anxiolytic- and Antidepressant-Like Effects of Salvinorin A, the Main Active Ingredient of Salvia divinorum, in Rodents.
by Braida D, Capurro V, Zani A, Rubino T, Vigano D, Parolaro D, Sala M.
British Journal of Pharmacology. 157(5): 844-853. This document is in PDF format.
Opioid Receptors and Legal Highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.
by Babu KM, McCurdy CR, Boyer EW.
Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia, PA). 46(2): 146–152 (2008). This document is in PDF format.
Ethnopharmacognosy and Human Pharmacology of Salvia divinorum and Salvinorin A.
by Jonathan Ott. Curare. 18(1): 103-129 (1995).
Psychoactive Card IV. Salvia divinorum Epling et Játiva: Leaves of the Shepherdess.
by Jonathan Ott. Eleusis, n. 4, pp. 31-39, 1996.
Scheda Psicoattiva IV. Salvia divinorum Epling et Játiva: Foglie della Pastora An Italian translation of the above.
Dose-Response Effects of Salvinorin A on Basal Dopamine Levels in the Caudate Putamen of C57BL/6J Mice.
by Zhang Y, Butelman ER, Schlussman SD, Ho A, Kreek MJ.
Effects of the Plant-Derived Hallucinogen Salvinorin A on Basal Dopamine Levels in the Caudate Putamen
and in a Conditioned Place Aversion Assay in Mice: Agonist Actions at Kappa Opioid Receptors.
by Yong Zhang Y, Butelman ER, Schlussman SD, Ho A, Kreek MJ.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 179(3): 551–558 (2005). This paper is in PDF format.
From Local to Global—Fifty Years of Research on Salvia divinorum
by Casselman I, Nock CJ, Wohlmuth H, Weatherby R, Heinrich M.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151(2): 768–783 (2014). This paper is in PDF format.
Pharmacokinetics of the Potent Hallucinogen, Salvinorin A in Primates Parallels the Rapid Onset and Short Duration of Effects in Humans.
by Hooker JM, Xu Y, Schiffer W, Shea C, Carter P, Fowler JS.
Neuroimage. 41(3): 1044-1050. This paper is in PDF format.
Metabolic Changes in the Rodent Brain After Acute Administration of Salvinorin A.
by Hooker JM, Patel V, Kothari S, Schiffer WK.
Molecular Imaging and Biology. 11(3): 137-143 (2009). This paper is in PDF format.
Salvinorin A and Derivatives: Protection from Metabolism Does Not Prolong Short-Term, Whole-Brain Residence.
by Hooker JM, Munro TA, Beguin C, Alexoff D, Shea C, Xu Y, Cohen BM.
Neuropharmacology. 57(4): 386–391. (2009). This paper is in PDF format.
Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Salvinorin A on Dopamine Function in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.
by Gehrke BJ, Chefer VI, Shippenberg TS.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 197(3): 509-517 (2008). This paper is in PDF format.
A Select Set of Opioid Ligands Induce Up-Regulation by Promoting the Maturation
and Stability of the Rat Kappa Opioid Receptor in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells.

by Wannemacher KM, Yadav PN, Howells RD.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapies. 323(2): 614–625. This paper is in PDF format.
Kappa Opioids Promote the Proliferation of Astrocytes via Gâã and â-Arrestin 2-Dependent MAPK-Mediated Pathways.
by McLennan GP, Kiss A, Miyatake M, Belcheva MM, Chambers KT, Pozek JJ, Mohabbat Y, Moyer RA, Bohn LM, Coscia CJ.
Journal of Neurochemistry. 107(6): 1753–1765 (2008). This paper is in PDF format.
Pharmacological Characterization of the Novel Kappa Opioid Agonist Salvinorin A in the Mouse
This study demonstrates that salvinorin A is active in vivo at kappa opioid receptors.
The Rise of a New Psychoactive Agent: Salvia divinorum.
by Appel J, Kim-Appel D.
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 5: 248–253 (2007). This paper is in PDF format.
Use of Salvia divinorum, an Unscheduled Hallucinogenic Plant: A Web-Based Survey of 500 Users.
This survey characterized the reasons, methods, and reported consequences of Salvia divinorum use.
Pattern of Use and Subjective Effects of Salvia divinorum Among Recreational Users.
by González D, Riba J, Bouso JC, Gómez-Jarabo G, Barbanoj MJ.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 85(2): 157–162 (2006). This paper is in PDF format.
Salvia divinorum–Prësenz einer neuen Droge im Internet. [Salvia divinorum—Representation of a New Drug in the Internet.]
[Abstract in English and German. Article in German only].
by Siemann H, Specka M, Schifano F, Deluca P, Scherbaum N.
Gesundheitswesen. 68(5): 323–327 (2006). This paper is in PDF format.
Internet Access to Salvia divinorum: Implications for Policy, Prevention, and Treatment.
by Hoover V, Marlowe DB, Patapis NS, Festinger DS, Forman RF.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 35(1): 22-27 (2008). This paper is in PDF format.
College Student Use of Salvia divinorum.
by Lange JE, Reed MB, Croff JM, Clapp JD.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 94(1-3): 263-266 (2008). This paper is in PDF format.
Salvia divinorum: Effects and Use Among YouTube Users.
by Lange JE, Daniel J, Homer K, Reed MB, Clapp JD.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 108(1-2): 138-140 (2010). This paper is in PDF format.
Salvia divinorum Use Among a College Student Sample.
by Khey DN, Miller BL, Griffin OH.
Journal of Drug Education. 38(3): 297–306 (2008). This paper is in PDF format.
Legally High? Legal Considerations of Salvia divinorum.
by Griffin III OH, Miller BL, Khey DN.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 40(2): 183-191 (2008).
Trippin’ on Sally D: Exploring Predictors of Salvia divinorum Experimentation.
by Miller BL, Griffin III OH, Gibson CL, Khey DN.
Journal of Criminal Justice. 37(4): 396–403 (2009).
Salvia divinorum: Exposures Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System Over 10 Years.
by Vohra R, Seefeld A, Cantrell FL, and Clark RF.
Journal of Emergency Medicine. [ePublished ahead of print September 16, 2009].
Salvia divinorum Epling et Játiva-M. (Labiatae): An Ethnopharmacological Investigation.
by Sherry A. Rovinsky. McNair Scholarly Review (1998).
Salvia divinorum: An Hallucinogenic Mint Which Might Become a New Recreational Drug in Switzerland.
Giroud et al. Forensic Science International. 112(2–3): 143–150 (2000). This paper is in PDF format.
Salvinorin: The Psychedelic Essence of Salvia divinorum. An extraordinary book by D.M.Turner (1996).
Salvia divinorum and Salvinorin A. The Best of The Entheogen Review 1992–2000. David Aardvark, Editor.
The Mushrooms of Language by Henry Munn. This essay provides valuable insight into the Mazatec shamanic world.
NovaScreen® receptor selectivity report on salvinorin-A.
Sage Wisdom: Salvia divinorum Branches Out. by Robert Campbell. An article from TRP Magazine (1997).
Cultivating Diviner's Sage by Will Beifuss. An article from TRP Magazine (1997).
Under the Spell of the Magic Mint. by Christopher Ketcham. Published in GQ magazine. June, 2007.


Additional Information on Salvia divinorum and Related Topics
Erowid - Salvia divinorum Vault.
Lycaeum's Salvia Archives.
Wikipedia article on Salvia divinorum. This webpage is continuously evolving. Anyone can participate in its development.
Something from the Heffter Research Institute.
USDA info on Salvia divinorum.
Some basic information about Salvia divinorum. From the DEA's list of Drugs and Chemicals of Concern.
A report on Salvia divinorum From the April 2003 edition of the Information Bulletin of the National Drug Intelligence Center.
Unfortunately, this document contains a lot of misinformation. It portrays all use of salvia as "abuse" and makes many false and inaccurate statements.
This report has been reprinted in the June 2003 edition of Microgram Bulletin (PDF format), a monthly newsletter
published by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration's Office of Forensic Sciences.
Lagochilus inebrians. An intriguing psychoactive member of the Labiatae.
Salvia splendens. A psychoactive sage???
Salvia Research Network. An international research group interested in improving our understanding of the genus Salvia.


Relevant Organizations
The Drug Policy Alliance. The leading organization working to broaden the public debate on drug policy and to promote realistic alternatives to the
war on drugs based on science, compassion, public health, and human rights. I strongly urge you to visit thier web site and make a generous financial
contribution to support the important work that this organization is doing.
MAPS (The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies). Supporting psychedelic research since 1986.
Student Resources. Are you interested in entering the field of "psychedelic studies"?
Useful advice and a list of academic programs that may be friendly to psychedelic–related topics.
Erowid. The world's most comprehensive resource for information about psychoactive drugs.
We urge you to become a supporter. By joining or contributing, you can help ensure that this quality information remains freely available.
The Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics (CCLE). A nonprofit education, law, and policy center working in the public interest to foster freedom
of thought. The CCLE has established the Salvia divinorum Action Center and the Salvia divinorum Defense Fund.
The Council on Spiritual Practices. Dedicated to making direct experience of the sacred more available to more people.
The Media Awareness Project. A worldwide network dedicated to drug policy reform.
The Drug Reform Coordination Network. A national network of more than 21,000 activists and concerned citizens, including parents,
educators, students, lawyers, health care professionals, academics, and others working for drug policy reform.
DRCNet supports rational policies consistent with the principles of peace, justice, freedom,
compassion, and truth. Each of these has been compromised in the name of the Drug War.
Students for Sensible Drug Policy. Students for Sensible Drug Policy is committed to providing education on harms caused by the War on Drugs working
to involve youth in the political process, and promoting an open, honest, and rational discussion of alternative solutions to our nation's drug problems.
The American Civil Liberties Union. Useful drug policy links.


Mail Center
I am always interested in hearing reports from people regarding their experiences with this herb. Click here to send me your thoughts, comments, experiences, and suggestions. I do read most of the email I receive; however, I receive more email than I have time to reply to. When replying to email, I give priority to correspondence that is particularly important or interesting.

Share this web site with a friend. This link opens a blank email window on most browsers. Please send your friends a note and let them know about The Salvia divinorum Research and Information Center. Don't forget to send them the URL: (http://sagewisdom.org).


Copyright © 1995-present, Daniel Siebert. All rights reserved. Use of any content of this site, for any purpose other than personal edification, is strictly forbidden without the expressed, written permission of the author.

(This site was last updated on October 1, 2014)